Thanks to Amelia Ladd for her beautiful pen and ink sketches.
Time of the Grasshoppers
For the past 20 years I have been working with 2nd graders studying grasshoppers. When you spend as much time as I have in the weeds looking for grasshoppers, their uniqueness and beauty goes right to your heart.
Late summer is the Time of the Grasshoppers. In the past two weeks I have noticed that the number of adult grasshoppers/crickets in the neighborhood has increased dramatically. It has taken the whole summer for the hoppers to go through their life cycle and most are now adults. In the spring, the eggs hatch, however, if the rains come before the eggs hatch, many get washed out. The young hoppers go through at least five nymph stages. During this time they cannot fly. The last stage of their lives, they “get their wings” becoming adults, and the singing begins.
Katydid calling at night.
One of my favorites is a night singer that calls from the trees, the snowy tree cricket. It makes a continuous pulse, and is also called the “temperature cricket”, since the pulse changes with the temperature. You can figure out the outside temperature by counting the number of pulses in 15 seconds and multiply by 4, adding 32.
Snowy Tree Cricket calling at night.
The formula to determine the temperature from a snowy tree cricket is as follows:
________________ X _____4_______ + 32 = ______________
# of pulses in 15 seconds (4 x 15 =60 seconds) temperature in °F
As soon as a hard frost hits, the “singing” drops from 100% to 0%. It is a shock and difficult to deal with emotionally since it tells us that the seasons are changing. There is also a “quiet beauty” in knowing that the grasshoppers have completed their life cycles. The eggs resting in the ground, promise the continuation their species next year.
The Carolina grasshopper or locust is normally found on bare ground. It is one of our largest grasshoppers in Minnesota (2-3 inches long). They are easily identified when they fly because they have black wings.
Meadow grasshoppers are found in tall marsh and prairie grass. The males make a repetitive buzzing sound in the grass during the day. The females are attracted to the sound. After they mate, the female will lay her eggs in a blade of grass using her knife-like ovipositor.
Meadow Grasshopper calling in the weeds during the day.
The Argiope spider is a predator on grasshoppers and I often see them in weeds. They make a beautiful web up to 3 feet across. Grasshoppers that fly/jump into the web are quickly wrapped up and mummified by the spider. The female Argiope is 4 times larger than the male.
The leopard frog is also a predator on grasshoppers and other grassland insects.
Download the Grasshopper activity pages from Nature Seeker Workbook
Reader Bob Bigham added the following comment about grasshoppers:
“While growing up in Pinckneyville , Illinois we would go bug hunting and grasshoppers was one of our favorites. they would “spit tobacco juice” if we held them too tight. One day we flipped one over and it had a bright red hour glass on its belly, just like a black widow.”